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Introduction to Adobe Photoshop CS

Adobe Photoshop is a graphical application used to create different images such as drawings posters, advertisements, cards, magazine covers, etc. The first version of Photoshop was released more than a decade ago, It has undergone several charges and improvements since then. Today, Photoshop CS is the latest version and is widely used by artists, graphic designers, etc. We can use Photoshop to change or manipulate existing images or to create our own images.

Creating a New file

Step 1  Click on the File menu on the Photoshop Toolbar.
Step 2  Click on New. (A dialog box titled New opens. We can enter the title for the new file in the Name box, or leave it untitled.)

Photoshop has different color modes for an image. Each color mode has different color values.

The different color modes are:
Bitmap: Converting an image to the Bitmap mode reduces the image to two colors. This reduces the file size also.
Grayscale: This mode uses up to 256 shades of gray. Image produced using black-and-white or grayscale scanners are displayed in this mode.
RGB: The RGB Red, Green and Blue model assigns an intensity value to each pixel between 0 and 255 for each of the RGB components in a color image.
CMYK: When images are used in printing, we generally assign the CMYK mode. Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black are the four basic inks used while printing. A combination of these colors is used to generate other colors.

Photoshop has a toolbox that has Different Tools performing different functions. These tools can be divided into four categories:


Using Various marquee tools, you can select areas of an image in rectangular, square, elliptical or circular shapes, single row and single column

To use the marquee tools:
  1. Open the image. Right click on the marquee tool and Select the required marquee tool from the list.

    • Rectangle Marquee to make a rectangular or square selection.

    • Elliptical Marquee to make an elliptical or circular selection.

    • Single Row or Single Column Marquee to define the border as a 1-pixel-wide row or column.

The Move tool is used for moving an image, or a part of an image from one location to another.

To specify Move tool options:
  1. Select the Move tool. From the toolbox The Move tool lets you drag a selection or layer to a new location in the image.

  2. Select any of the following in the options bar:

    • Auto Select Layer to select the topmost layer that has pixels under the Move tool, rather than the selected layer.

    • Show Bounding Box to display the bounding box around the selected item

The lasso tools are used to make freehand, polygonal (straight-edged), and magnetic* (snap-to) selections area of an image.

Lasso tool:- Used to make free-form selections in the desired shapes.

Polygonal Lasso tool:- Used to make selections in the form of polygonal areas by clicking at different points to obtain a selection as a polygon.

Magnetic Lasso tool:-  is especially useful for quickly selecting objects with complex edges set against high-contrast backgrounds.

Notes- To erase recently drawn segments, hold down the Delete key until you’ve erased the fastening points for the desired segment

The Magic Wand tool is used to selects similarly colored areas in an image.

The Magic Wand tool lets you select a consistently colored area (for example, a red flower) without having to trace its outline. You specify the color range, or tolerance, for the Magic Wand tool’s selection.

Note: You cannot use the Magic Wand tool on an image in Bitmap mode.

The Crop tool is used to trims an image. Click on the crop tool from the toolbox.

Click and drag to create a rectangle selection over the part of the image that you want to keep and release the mouse button.

Right click inside the Crop tool to crop the portion of the image you have selected and click on Crop.

The healing brush tool used to paints with a sample or pattern to repair imperfections in an image. Healing Brush tool also matches the texture, lighting, transparency, and shading of the sampled pixels to the source pixels.

Place the pointer on the image area to select the sample color.
Press Alt key and click the mouse to select the sample
Click and drag the area of the image where you want to repair

Repairs imperfections in a selected area of an image using a sample or pattern.

Do one of the following:
    • Drag in the image to select the area you want to repair, and select Source in the options bar.

    • Drag in the image to select the area from which you want to sample, and select Destination in the options bar.

Note: You can also make a selection prior to selecting the Patch tool.

Replaces a selected color with a new color.

The Color Replacement tool simplifies replacing specific colors in your image. You can paint over a targeted color–for example, a person’s red eyes in an image–with a corrective color.

(Paintbrush tool or Pencil tool)

The brush tool works like an ordinary brush and creates a smooth stroke of the background color.

The steps to use the Brush tool are following:
  1. Open the image
  2. Make a selection of the white background using any of the selection tools
  3. Click on the brush tool in the toolbox.
  4. Click on the down-arrow button beside the Brush option in the Options bar.
  5. Click on a brush style of your choice.
  6. Click on the foreground color box in the Toolbox. The color Picker Palette appears on the screen
  7. Click on the appropriate color in the Color Picker Palette and Click on OK
  8. Click and drag the mouse pointer on the image to draw strokes of the selected color.

The Clone Stamp tool is used for cloning or duplicating selected areas of an image. To use this tool do the following.

  1. Open the image
  2. Click on the clone stamp tool in the toolbox.
  3. Hold down the ALT key and click on the part of the image to be cloned. Then, release the ALT key.
  4. Click and drag the mouse over the area of the image to be replaced with the cloned pixels.

Paints with part of an image as a pattern.

The Eraser tool – The Eraser tool is used to erase portions of an image

The Background Eraser tool – Erases areas to transparency by dragging.

The Magic Eraser tool – Erases solid-colored areas to transparency with a single click.

The Gradient tool is used to fill a selected portion or an image with transitions of one color to another. It is a fill consisting of two or more colors blending together. We can fill an area with a linear, radial, angular, reflected or diamond gradient.

The steps are:

  1. To fill part of the image, select the desired area. Otherwise, the gradient fill is applied to the entire active layer.
  2. Select the Gradient tool.
  3. Select an option for applying the gradient fill in the options bar:
    • Linear gradient  to shade from the starting point to the ending point in a straight line.
    • Radial gradient  to shade from the starting point to the ending point in a circular pattern.
    • Angle gradient  to shade in a counterclockwise sweep around the starting point.
    • Reflected gradient  to shade using symmetric linear gradients on either side of the starting point.
    • Diamond gradient  to shade from the starting point outward in a diamond pattern. The ending point defines one corner of the diamond.

Fills Similarly colored areas with the foreground color.

The Blur tool softens hard edges or areas in an image to reduce detail.

The Sharpen tool focuses soft edges to increase clarity or focus.

The Smudge tool simulates the actions of dragging a finger through wet paint. The tool picks up color where the stroke begins and pushes it in the direction you drag.

Lightens areas in an image.

Darkens areas in an image.

The Sponge tool subtly changes the color saturation of an area. In Grayscale mode, the tool increases or decreases contrast by moving gray levels away from or toward the middle gray.

T For typing text in a Photoshop document, we have to use the Type tool. Whenever we type some text in Photoshop, it is created on a separate layer called the Type Layer. The steps to add text to an image are:

Create a selection in the shape of type.

When you use the Horizontal Type Mask tool or Vertical Type Mask tool , you create a selection in the shape of the type. Type selections appear on the active layer, and can be moved, copied, filled, or stroked just like any other selection.

Makes customized shapes selected from a custom shape list.

Note: The Polygon tool , Custom Shape tool , Add Anchor Point tool , Delete Anchor Point tool , and Convert Point tool are available only in Photoshop.

The Eyedropper tool samples color to designate a new foreground or background color. You can sample from the active image or from anywhere else on the screen.

Moves an image within its window.

Magnifies and reduces the view of an image

To zoom in: = Use ( Ctrl + )

To zoom out: = Use ( Ctrl  – )

To display an image at 100%: Choose View > Actual Pixels

To change the view to fit the screen: Choose View > Fit on Screen.